Icyumweru cy’ububabare bwa Nyagasani (Mashami): Kwinjira ku buryo bwa hafi mu nzira igana ku musaraba

 Icyumweru gitagatifu, ari nacyo cya nyuma cy’igihe cy’Igisibo, ni icyumweru gihatse amabanga menshi kandi yuzuzanya: guhimbaza ukwinjira kwa Yezu i Yeruzalemu ameze nk’Umwami wuje imitsindo, guhimbaza ububabare bwe, guhimbaza inyabutatu ya Pasika.

Mu Cyumweru gitagatifu Kiliziya ihimbaza amabanga y’ugucungurwa kwa muntu yigaragarije muri Kristu mu minsi ye ya nyuma hano ku isi. Icyumweru Gitagatifu gitangirana n’umutambagiro w’icyumweru cya Mashami, wibutsa igihe Yezu yinjiranye ikuzo muri Yeruzalemu, maze abana b’abayahudi bakamwakirana urwamo rw’ibyishimo nk’Umwami w’ikuzo bagira bati “Hosana, uragasingizwa Mwana wa Dawudi”. Ubuhamya bw’umukristukazi witwa Eggerie wakoreye ingendo nyobokamana i Yeruzalemu ahagana mu kinyejana cya Kane bwemeza ko iki cyumweru kitwaga Icyumweru Gikuru (Semaine Majeure). Nk’uko EGERRIE abivuga  ku cyumweru cy’amashami  i Yeruzalemu cyahimbazwaga ku buryo bukurikira: saa moya za mu gitondo, abayoboke bahuriraga ku musozi w’imizeti bari kumwe n’umwepiskopi, bakicara mu Kiliziya bakaririmba indirimbo z’ibisingizo, bagasomera hamwe amasomo anyanye n’igihimbazwa barangiza bagataha. Saa Cyenda bakazamuka bagana ku musozi Yezu yari ariho asubira mu Ijuru baririmba indirimbo zibutsa ugusubira mu ijuru kwa Nyagasani, bahagera bakicara bose uretse abadiyakoni bakaririmba indirimbo z’ibisingizo, bakahasomera amasomo, bakahavugira amasengesho ajyanye n’igihe n’aho bari, byagera saa kumi n’imwe z’umugoroba batangaza Ivanjili ivuga aho abana ba Israheli basanganiye Nyagasani n’amashami y’imikindo mu ntoki, bagasasa ibishura byabo hasi baririmba bati “uragasingizwa uje mu izina rya Nyagasani” (Mt 21,1-9; Mk 11,1-10; Lk 19,28-40; Yh 12,12-19). Nyuma y’aho Umwepiskopi n’imbaga yose bagahaguruka bagana aho Yezu yabambiwe buri wese afite ishami ry’umukindo cyangwa ry’umuzeti, bagerayo bagacana urumuri bakavugira amasengesho iruhande rw’umusalaba.

 Uyu mutambagiro wo ku Cyumweru cy’Ububabare watangiriye Yeruzalemu, wakwirakwiye muri kiliziya zo mu burasirazuba (Orient) ifata izina ry’Icyumweru cya Mashami, i Roma mu gihe cya Papa  Lewo Mukuru, icyumweru cya VI cy’igisibo cyiswe icyumweru cy’Ububabare bwa Nyagasani. Batangazaga ububabare bwa Nyagasani uko bugaragara mu ivanjili uko yanditswe na Matayo. Papa yatangaga inyigisho ku gice cya mbere cy’ububabare naho igice cya kabiri akazagitangaho inyigisho ku wa Gatatu Mutagatifu. Ububabare bwa Nyagasani Yezu bwatangazwaga ku cyumweru nyirizina, ku wa gatatu, ku wa gatanu no ku wa gatandatu mbere ya Pasika.

Mu gihugu cya Hispaniya ndetse no mu bihugu byari bishamikiye ku bwami bw’ubufaransa (pays de Gaule), abiteguraga kubatizwa nibwo bakoranga umuhango wo gusubiza indangakwemera “Traditio simboli” kandi bagakorerwaho umuhango wa “effata”-zibuka. Muri uyu muhimbazo hatangazwaga ivanjli uko yanditswe na Yohani 12,1-25, aho bavuga isigwa rya Betaniya n’iyinjira rya Yezu i Yeruzalemu.

Ahagana mu kinyajana cya VII n’icya VIII, niho abayoboke batangiye kuza mu kiliziya bitwaje amashami y’imikindo n’ay’ibindi biti bayazunguza bagira bati “Hosana” ibyo byatumya i Roma, guhera mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya X icyo cyumweru bagihindurira izina bacyita icyumweru cya Mashami“Dominica in Palmas de passione Domini” cyangwa “Dies Dominica ad palmas”,[1] mbere cyitwaga icyumweru cy’ububabare bwa Nyagasani. Mu by’ukuri, akamenyero ko kwitwaza amashami kuri iki cyumweru kahawe umurongo neza hagana mu ntangiriro z’ikinyajana cya IX, nibyo uwitwa Amalaire Metz akoresha mu nyandiko ze yerekana umuco wo kwitwaza amashami mu kiliziya “per ecclesias” no gutera urwamo rw’ibyishimo bagira bati “Hosana”, mu mpera z’ikinyajana cya XI niho uyu muco winjijwe mu liturujiya ya Papa nk’uko bigaragara mu gitambo cya liturujiya ya Papa (Pontifical Romain Germanique), kuva ubwo rero icyumweru cya VI cy’Igisibo cyagize impu ebyiri z’umuhimbazo: Guhimbaza ububabare bwa Nyagasani, no kwibuka ukwinjira i Yeruzalemu kwa Nyagasani Yezu.

Nk’uko bimaze kuvugwa mu gika cyo hejuru, icyumweru Gitagatifu, gitangirana n’icyumweru cy’Ububabare bwa Nyagasani gikunze kwitwa Icyumweru cya Mashami. Kuri iki cyumweru hahimbazwa amabanga abiri akomeye kandi yuzuzanya: Ibanga rya mbere ni ukwibuka isesekara rya Nyagasani Yezu I Yeruzalemu agamije kuzuza ibanga rya Pasika, naho ibanga rya kabiri ni  ukuzirikana ku bubabare bwe.

  • Kwibuka isesekara rya Nyagasani Yezu i Yeruzalemu: Kwibuka isesekara rya Yezu i Yeruzalemu bikorwa mbere ya Misa y’umunsi hanze ya Kiliziya iribuze guturirwamo Igitambo cy’Ukaristiya, bikarangwa no guha amashami umugisha, gutangaza Ivanjili yibutsa icyo gikorwa, hanyuma hakaba umutambagiro w’abakristu bitwaje amashami y’imikindo cyangwa andi mashami mu ntoki, bigana abana b’Abayahudi, maze bakerekeza ahari bubere Misa. Umutambagiro ushobora gukorwa n’ikoraniro ryose cyangwa se n’abantu bake batoranyijwe kugira ngo baherekeze umusaserdoti. Iyo nta tambagira Misa iba uko bisanzwe.

Umutambagiro n’amashami ni umwanya w’ibyishimo bihishe akababaro kazatsindwa n’izuka rya Nyagasani kuri Pasika ye. Mbese ni nk’umunsi wa Kristu Umwami. Iri bango rigarukwaho cyane mu masengesho ateganyijwe uyu munsi (intangiriro, isengesho riherekeza amaturo, interuro y’isengesho rikuru ry’ukaristiya-prefasi, isengesho zisoza) ariko cyane cyane mu Ivanjili Ntagatifu. Ububabare bwa Nyagasani, bugomba gutangazwa mu cyubahiro kibukwiye, mu kwemera kutajegajega, bigakorwa n’umudiyakoni cyangwa se umusaserdoti. Iyo bibaye ngombwa ko hakoreshwa abandi basomyi hagomba kubonekamo (umubarankuru, uvuga ibya rubanda, igice kireba Yezu giharirwa umusaserdoti cyangwa undi uyoboye ikoraniro. Mu kwerekana ko ivanjili itangazwa ari iy’ububabare koko, hari imigenzo yirengagizwa: abahereza nta matara batwara, nta cyotezo n’ububani, uyitangaza ntasuhuza ikoraniro, cyakora iyo ari umudiyakoni agomba kubanza gusaba umugisha umwepiskopi cyangwa umusaserdoti. Kirazira kwirengagiza inyigisho.

Mu kuzirikana ku bubabare bwa Yezu hari ibigomba kumvikana neza.

  • Abantu bo kuri Mashami, bamwakiranye ibyishimo ariko ku wa 5 Mutagatifu nibo bazamuvugiriza induru bagira bati “nabambwe”, ariko kandi iyo mbaga ni nayo irimo inkoramutima zizamuherekeza kugeza mu mva (Yozefu wa Arimatiya, Umubyeyi we, Mariya muka Kiliwofasi, na Mariya Magdalina)
  • Indirimbo Hosana, Yezu yayumvaga nk’ikimenyetso cyuzuza ibigiye kumwuzurizwaho ku musaraba, niyo izahindukamo ibitutsi, kuvunderezwa amacandwe no guteshwa agaciro.
  • Amashami yazunguzwaga yashushanyaga amahwa azamutamirizwa mu mutwe ashinyagurirwa ngo ni “ikamba ry’umwami”
  • Ibiti byari byavuyeho ariya mashami yazunguzwaga aho yanyuraga hose yabibonaga nk’imisaraba itegereje abayibambwaho n’agahinda gashengura ababakunda
  • Imyenda n’ibitambaro byatambikwaga mu nzira, byashushanyaga uburyo Yezu azatumbuzwa, agacuzwa ikanzu ye, akambikwa ubusa.
  • Abanditsi b’ivanjili berekana Yezu nk’umuntu uje mu be, akakirwa nk’Umukiza wari utegerejwe na benshi ariko bake muri bo kandi b’abayobozi ntibamwishimiye ahubwo bamutamitse rubanda rwari rumwishimiye kugeza aho barumunduriye ku musaraba.

Muri make rero, ibyo tubona bikorwa ubu byatangiye kubona umurongo mu binyejana bya VI na VIII, intego ihatse izindi ni ububabare bwa Nyagasani Yezu, si ukwinjirana ikuzo i Yeruzalemu. Ihimbazwa ry’icyumweru cy’Ububabare bwa Nyagasani, bifungurira amarembo ihimbazwa rya hafi ry’ibanga rya Pasika ritangira ku wa 4 Mutagatifu mu misa y’isangira rya nyuma rya Yezu n’intumwa ze. Ku wa mbere, ku wa 2, ku wa 3 ku wa kane mbere ya misa y’isangira ni iminsi ibarirwa mu gisibo.

 

Padiri NKUNDIMANA Théophile,

Padiri Mukuru wa Paruwasi Gishaka/ Kigali.

 

[1] Reba GeV 329 na GrH 281

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